Saturday, May 23, 2020

Critique Tribal Wisdom Essay - 855 Words

Tribal Wisdom nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;David Maybury Lewis (1992) wonders if we, as Americans, by having systematically chosen to dismiss as odd, weird, and not the right way to live; in our views of foreign tribal cultures, have been hoisted by our own petard. By using his definition of a tribal society (for which there really is no one single way of life): quot;small-scale, pre-industrial societies that live in comparative isolation and manage their affairs without central authority such as the statequot;, (p 6) he questions whether cultural roads industrialized quot;modernquot; societies have chosen have caused the serious social problems we suffer today. We are the modernists, defined by†¦show more content†¦Or if he did, he questioned the ultimate good of those positives or potential hazards. Medical advances, for example, were never mentioned as a positive that could only have come about through modern culture and its credo of achievement. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;I agreed completely, as I mentioned, with his stated ideas. His studies of tribal societies can be broken down to one basic. In modern civilizations, materialism and individuality are the valuables and in the tribal or traditional societies, people are the resources. Peoples relationships with one another and the Earth are the constant he found in primitive groups. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;He found the modern world to idealize individuality, from formal schooling to cultural experience, preaching the idea that personal achievement at any cost is the basis of life and the reward is status. Any human potential toward kindness, generosity, patience, tolerance, cooperation, compassion...are literally undervalued: any job that requires such talents usually has low pay and low prestige.quot; (p. 7). This seems so honest a comparison to me as I study the strong cooperative lifestyles of people who must live as a group in order to survive. These same people have also developed a strong bond with the land that is their economic resource. They have a respect for that which comes from the Earth by means of foraging or hunting. The tribal culture almostShow MoreRelatedPlato s Views On Art And Representation1322 Words   |  6 Pages focusing on the harm caused by writing compared to speech. In Phaedrus, Plato claims that writings are subject to be misunde rstood as the writer will not be able to defend his writing, and these writings only give the appearance of wisdom but is not actually wisdom, because one will not understand what the text means. These texts would be source of amusement rather than knowledge, as only philosophers pursue idea whereas writers just twist up and rearrange words. These are very fierce claims againstRead MoreSummary Of It s Such A Big Dream I Can t See It All1532 Words   |  7 Pagestoward the end of his project that he used a 6 x 8 inch reflex camera. Curtis approach was to gain the trust of our First Peoples by living with them and demonstrating his respect for their ancestral traditions. This allowed him to speak with many tribal leaders about their sacred traditions and create the reality of his art. In addition Curtis had some contact with American Indians, most Indian life had vanished by the time he arrived in 1870’s. There is no record of any influence by any AmericanRead MoreAnthropology Of Human Culture And Society1745 Words   |  7 Pagespioneering anthropologists have applied science as a model for knowledge to construct their theoretical understanding of the social world. Though the humankind had made speculations about themselves and others around them ever since the beginning of human wisdom, it was not until the time of Enlightenment, during which science was first sought as an alternative paradigm to religious explanation of the universe, that such speculation were recognised as where disciplinary anthropology has spouted from (SalzmanRead MoreThe Naqshbandi And Qadiri Brotherhoods1683 Words   |  7 Pagesdistinctiveness and richness of Kurdish identity, culture, and language as opposed to the Kurds’ neighbors. Not only was his work one of the earliest recovered, written works to promote a Kurdish identity, but it is also understood by many as a critique of the power struggle between the Ottoman and Safavid Empires. Xani’s supposed longing for a Kurdish state has made him a legend and his piece a nationalist treasure to many modern Kurds. Xani laments, â€Å"If only we [the Kurds] had a king...thenRead MoreIt s Such A Big Dream , I Can t See It All1769 Words   |  8 Pagestoward the end of his project that he used a 6 x 8 inch reflex camera. Curtis approach was to gain the trust of our First Peoples by living with them and demonstrating his respect for their ancestral traditions. This allowed him to speak with many tribal leaders about their sacred traditions and create the reality of his art. In addition Curtis undoubtedly had some contact with American Indians while growing up in Minnesota, most traditional Indian life there had disappeared by the time he and hisRead MoreStereotypes and Stereotyping of Native American in The Pioneers1950 Words   |  8 PagesChinkagooch as the noble savage.    Beyond Chinkagoochs appearance and manner, Cooper also sentimentalizes John Mohegans intrinsic and profound connection with nature and the wilderness.   Clearly, John Mohegan has a certain insight and wisdom about the ways of the woods, as demonstrated, for example, by his skill in hunting.   This understanding is also demonstrated when he dresses the bullet wound of his friend, Oliver Edwards.   It is described that his dressing were soon appliedRead MoreChild Marriages: A human rights issue2995 Words   |  12 Pagespoverty, and social and political turbulence. In these strange lands it is often unclear who really makes the laws, a place where more children can be found begging on the street then in school. The fate of young village girls rest in the hands of tribal chiefs, within the home older brothers and fathers are the law. In the Middle Eastern Countryside women are not taught to make choices. At their age they do not ask questions. All children are delivered at home, their mothers’ laying on a woven matRead More Visions of The Primitive in Langston Hughes’s The Big Sea Essay examples6201 Words   |  25 Pagesintegration and his relative innocence in matters of Southern mores would distinguish his circumstances from the lot of the African American masses, with whom he sought to connect. This unusual perspective allowed Hughes to assume a degree of disabused wisdom in racial matters that few of his contemporaries, white or black, could equal. This quality is apparent when the S. S. Malone puts into various ports along the west coast of Portuguese Angola and he becomes acutely aware of the autonomous peoplesRead MoreReligious Violence in Nigeria6487 Words   |  26 Pagesa variety of disturbances some of which have threatened the existence of the country as a nation. Some of these disturbances could be described as intra-religious while the others are inter-religious. There are others that are more of politico-tribal in nature than religious even though some people may see them as religious simply because each group involved come from a different religion. Below is a brief account of these disturbances according to the above classification. Intra-religiousRead MoreSociology and Social Change6068 Words   |  25 Pagesthe main object in the sociological theory and inquiry of Marx, Weber, and Durkheim. For Marx, the analysis of social change is present in an evolutionary model that contends that human history has seen a succession of modes of production -namely, tribal, ancient, feudal, and capitalist- and that the present capitalist mode of production is bound to be superseded by the socialist mode of production.    For Durkheim, social change is represented by transformations in the social morphology -or the

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Animal and Plants Cell Structures - 700 Words

Student Sheet Name: Date: June 18, 2015 Instructor’s Name: Assignment: SCIE207 Phase 2 Lab Report Title: Animal and Plant Cell Structures Instructions: Your lab report will consist of the completed tables. Label each structure of the plant and animal cell with its description and function in the provided tables. When your lab report is complete, submit this document to your instructor in your assignment box. 1. Animal cell: Observe the diagram that shows the components of an animal cell. Using the textbook and virtual library resources, fill in the following table: Animal Cell Number Cell Structure Description and Function 1 Nuclear pore Microscopic channels that allow certain material in and out of†¦show more content†¦Questions to answer a. List 3 organelles that are found in plant cells that are not found in animal cells. 1. Chloroplast__________ 2. Cell Wall__________ 3. Central Vacuole__________ b. Because plant cells have chloroplasts and can do photosynthesis, why do they also need mitochondria? Plant cells need both chloroplasts and mitochondria because they both play a very important but different role for the plants. Plants needs chloroplasts that can do photosynthesis to make glucose from light energy during the daylight. On the other hand plants need mitochondria because it breaks down such macromolecules like carbohydrates or lipids intoShow MoreRelatedThe Structure Of Animal And Plant Cells1135 Words   |  5 Pagesone: the differences between the structure of animal and plant cells In general both animal cells and plant cells have the similar structures, however they do have some differences. Plant cells have a cell wall, this strengthens the cell,it also gives it shape and protects it from infection. Plant cells also have chloroplasts which absorb light energy,this is vital for photosynthesis. Plant cell also have a vacuole, however unlike the ones found in animal cells they are much larger. Vacuoles storeRead MoreEssay about Comparing Animal Cells to Plant Cells617 Words   |  3 PagesComparing Cells Task: Write a comparison of animal and plant cells While plant and animal cells appear to be different, they have some similar features. Both kinds of cells contain a nucleus – which can also be known as the â€Å"brains† or the â€Å"control centre† of the cell. The nucleus of a cell contains most of its genetic material and is responsible for controlling all of the cell’s activities through gene expression. Both plant and animal cells also have structures called chromosomes. They are locatedRead MoreDifference Between Plant And Animal Cells1309 Words   |  6 Pages CELL OBSERVATION LAB By Alexandra Escaja-Heiss, Ashley Reeves, Christine Constant Period G1/B3a - Living Systems 10/22/15 Purpose To identify the difference between plant and animal cells, recognize their structures, and to better understand the various functions of those cell organelles. II. Background In 1665 Robert Hooke used an early light microscope to look at a thin slice of cork. Under the microscope the cork looked to have thousands on empty chambers, whichRead MoreCell Lab Report1076 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIVING CELLS Name Answer the following questions as you work your way through the lab material typing in your answers. Then submit your completed lab report through the â€Å"Assignment† feature. This lab report is worth 50 points towards your final lab grade. Also, per the Honor Code, this work must be your own. CELLS Using your Biology Textbook answer the following questions. 1. What types of organisms are Prokaryotes? The Prokaryotes are organisms that areRead MoreCell Structure Essay836 Words   |  4 PagesExperiment 1 1. For each structure identified, do you think its location affects its ability to function? Why or why not? (Hint: those buried deep in the cell probably do different things than those closer to the cell membrane). Structure does not affect function of the cells, cells have a particular structure that enables them to carry out their function in the best way. 2. Draw a labeled diagram of a small section of the plasma membrane and briefly describe its structure and function. 3Read MoreInvestigating And Extract Chromatin From Plant And Animal Tissues1709 Words   |  7 Pagesinvestigate and extract chromatin from plant and animal tissues. Chromatin fundamentally is the material that makes up the chromosomes and is comprised of DNA and histone proteins. Histones, which are small proteins that encompass a large amount of the basic amino acids, enable negatively charged DNA molecules to be bound. 1 Found within eukaryotic cells’ nucleuses, histones serve to bundle DNA into nucleosomes. They make up a great deal of the components within a cell nucleus, and assist in regulatingRead MoreEukaryotic Vs. Eukaryotic Cells1645 Words   |  7 PagesEukaryotes and prokaryotes There are only two types of cell in the world, these are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. They are both similar and different in many ways, for example prokaryotes are only a few micrometres in size whereas eukaryotes are between 5-100 micrometres and nearly 10,000 times the volume of that of a prokaryote. A chemical similarity between the two is that they both either contain or use proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids to store or create energy. Both eukaryotesRead MoreThe Study Of Cells From 330 Years Ago1427 Words   |  6 PagesThe study of cells started about 330 years ago. Before that time cells escaped notice because of their small size. With the invention of the microscope and its subsequent improvement, cells became visible and many new discoveries were made about them. Even today the study of cells reveals more detail, and its secrets, which are in fact the secrets of life itself, are revealed with ever increasing clarity. In 1665, English Scientist and Microscopist Robert Hooke described a honeycomb-like networkRead MoreLab Report About Examination of Protozoan Cultures1479 Words   |  6 PagesSAMPLE DESCRIPTIVE LAB REPORT Examination of Protozoan Cultures to Determine Cellular Structure and Motion Pattern Abstract Protozoans are unicellular eukaryotes with either plant- or animal-like characteristics. Through careful observation, we analyzed various protozoan cultures in order to identify characteristics associated with cell structure and movement of these one-celled organisms. We found that Protists exhibit certain characteristics that allow them to be categorized into different groupsRead MoreThe Responses Of Animals And Plants1566 Words   |  7 Pagessmall and highly infectious. It possesses the ability in infecting all cell types, from complex eukaryotes such as plants and animals, to microorganisms including archaea and bacteria. [1] However, it could only rely on infecting a host cell for viral replication, which when infecting a host cell it incorporates its genetic materials into the host cell DNA and uses the host’s cellular component for replication, such that the cell produces viral proteins and genetic materials for assembling new viron

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Transformational Leadership Transformational Leader

The Road to Becoming a More Effective Transformational Leader A leader not only inspires those around them, but also seizes opportunities. Leaders listen to and advise those around them while recognizing and grooming their talents for greater potential success. All leaders share these abilities, how they achieve them from those on their team may vary. In this paper, I will examine transformational leadership in well-known leaders, the examples they exhibit and these can apply to me personally. The Transformational Leadership Style Transformational leaders have an ability to not only gain the trust their team, but also inspire those around them as tools in a proverbial â€Å"toolbox†. By convincing those that follow them to put self-interest aside for the benefit of the group, these leaders are able to generate tremendous results and transform collections of individuals into teams. For further insight into this leadership style, we turn to Steven Covey: The goal of transformational leadership is to â€Å"transform† people and organizations in a literal sense – to change them in mind and heart; enlarge vision, insight, and understanding; clarify purposes; make behavior congruent with beliefs, principles, or values; and bring about changes that are permanent, self-perpetuating, and momentum building (Covey, 2009, p. 287). Communication Skills Without a base of excellent communication skills, the ability to inspire individuals would miss the mark completely. Leaders of thisShow MoreRelatedTransformational Leadership : A Transformational Leader985 Words   |  4 PagesTransformational leadership. Burns (1978) is recognized as one of the earliest theorist on transformational leadership, who introduced transformational leadership over 30 years ago. Transformational leaders are perceived as leaders who uplift their employee morale, subsequently uplifting the entire organizational. Transformational leaders are known by their capacity to inspire followers to forgo self-interests in achieving superior results for the organization (Clawson, 2006). Avolio and YammarinoRead MoreTransformational Leadership : Transformational Leaders1745 Words   |  7 PagesEffective leadership requires skills to adapt to the demands of fresh situations. Leadership flexibility offers opportunities to hone unique approaches, a s circumstances demand. Leaders can hang onto core styles while embracing principles found in harmonizing theories. Theories of particular interest are transformational leadership and servant leadership, among others. These approaches are synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Moreover, they overlap with other beneficial leadership conceptsRead MoreTransformational Leadership : The Transformational Leader2649 Words   |  11 Pagesauthentic the transformational leader needs to be an ethical moral agent. â€Å"A leader is praiseworthy as a moral agent if he or she possesses a developed conscience and acts in ways that are kind, charitable and altruistic rather than selfish or maleficent.† ( The authentic leader tends to complete actions which are best for the followers. Leaders actions should be judged based on the ends sought, means used, and the consequences achieved. Authentic transformational leadership can be definedRead MoreTransformational Leadership : Transformational Leader837 Words   |  4 PagesThe Four Components to being a Transformational Leader Being a transformational leader is a great humane leadership theory, which believes in inspiring people to do excellent work through example of a leader’s personality. A transformational leader’s main goal is to inspire followers to share their values, and connect with their vision. The four components to be a transformational leader are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized considerationRead MoreTransformational Leadership : Transformational Leaders Essay916 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferences There are many differences among the leadership theories. According to Schreuder et al. (2012) Well established theories of transactional and transformational leadership have been criticized for not including the situational context (p. 429). While transformational leadership is extremely motivational and follower-focused, transformational leaders lack the focus of assessing situations and altering their style to match it. Situational leaders, however, are adept in assessing the situationRead MoreTransformational Leadership : A Transformational Leader1503 Words   |  7 PagesTransformational Nursing Leadership INTRODUCTION Leadership is a process. The leader uses influence to inspire others toward a common goal. There are different types of leadership such as autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. One leadership theory is transformational leadership. A transformational leader is defined as â€Å"a leader who is committed to a vision that empowers others† (Kelly, 2012). A transactional leader is focused on day toRead MoreTransformational Leadership : A Transformational Leader2032 Words   |  9 PagesLeadership is the process of â€Å"communicating, motivating, encouraging and involving.† (PowerPoint 2) A leader who combines these vital characteristics will â€Å"inspire and motivate† subordinates to â€Å"help achieve group and organizational goals† (textbook) and are key ingredients to a successful organisation. Transformational leadership is one of the three main leadership styles adopted by managers. The book, Contemporary Management specifies the three main cha racteristics of transformational leadershipRead MoreTransformational Leadership : A Transformational Leader1076 Words   |  5 Pages As I take a moment to reflect on my time here, I have learned that I have traits of a Transformational Leader but that I also have room for improvement. I have highlighted areas in where I felt I needed the most improvement to become the Transformational Leader that I aspire to be. For the next three to five years, I plan to implement these changes to improve the way that I utilize the Elements of Adaptability, The Who, Stakes and Situation, Impact on Work Center Climate, and Ethical BehaviorRead MoreTransformational Leadership : Transformational Leaders895 Words   |  4 PagesAs leadership is ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. Leaders use influence to motivate followers and arrange the work environment so they do the job more effect ively. To start with transformational leader, transformational leadership is a leadership perspective that explains how leaders change teams or organizations by creating, communicating, modelling a shared vision for the team orRead MoreTransformational Leadership : Transformational Leaders1968 Words   |  8 PagesTransformational leadership is regarded as one of the most effective leadership styles in times of change and uncertainty. It is used to not only create a long term vision within an organization, but also inspire its employees (Tyssen et al, 2014). For example, if an organization’s main goal is to increase sales, instead of thinking of the process as a â€Å"strictly-business† type process, transformational leaders look to motivate and encourage his or her followers to think of new ways to increase

Data collection methods Free Essays

Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes. Data Collection Techniques include the following: Personal Interviews Conducting personal interviews is probably the best method of data collection to gain first hand information. It is however, unsuitable in cases where there are many people to be interviewed and questioned. We will write a custom essay sample on Data collection methods or any similar topic only for you Order Now Questionnaires Questionnaires are good methods of data collection when there is a need for a articular class of people to be questioned. The researcher can prepare a questionnaire according to the data he requires and send it to the responders. Detailed observation Data can also most effectively be obtained with means of observational skills. The researcher can visit a place and take down details of all that he observes which is actually required for aiding in his research. Here, the researcher has to make sure that what he is observing is real. Group Discussions Group discussions are good techniques where the researcher has to know what the people in a group think. He can come to a conclusion based on the group discussion hich may even involve good debate topics of research. Internet Data The Internet is an ocean of data, where you can get a substantial amount of information for research. However, researchers need to remember that they should depend on reliable sources on the web for accurate information. Books and Guides These data collection techniques are the most traditional ones that are still used in today’s research. Unlike the Internet, it is sure that you will get good and accurate information from books and published guides. Using Experiments Sometimes, for obtaining the full understanding of the scenario, researchers have to onduct actual experiments on the field. Research experiments are usually carried out in fields such as science and manufacturing. This is the best method for gaining an in-depth understanding of the subject related to the research. There are many other methods of data collection which may help the researcher to draw statistical as well as conceptual conclusions. For obtaining accurate and dependable data, researchers are suggested to combine two or more of the above mentioned data collection techniques. http://www. buzzle. com/articles/data- collection-techniques. html Types of Data Data types are categorized into two types: Primary data and Secondary data. Primary This is data that is collected by the researcher himself. The data is gathered through questionnaires, interviews, observations etc. Secondary data This is data that is collected, compiled or written by other researchers eg. ooks, journals, newspapers internet etc. The following steps are used to collect data Review ; compile secondary source information Plan ; design data collection instruments To gather primary information Data collection Data analysis and interpretation Siddiqui, S. A. (2012) Key questionnaire design principles . Keep the questionnaire as short as possible. 2. Ask short, simple, and clearly worded questions. 3. Start with demographic questions to help responden ts get started comfortably. 4. Use dichotomous (yes I no) and multiple choice questions. . Use open-ended questions cautiously. 6. Avoid using leading-questions. 7. Pretest a questionnaire on a small number of people. 8. Think about the way you intend to use the collected data when preparing the questionnaire. Which data collection method should the researcher use? Because of the biases inherent in any data-collection method, it is sometimes dvisable to use more than one method when collecting diagnostic data. The data from the different methods can be compared, and if consistent, it is likely the variables are being validly measured. Statistical inference permits us to draw conclusions about a population based on a sample. Sampling (i. e. selecting a sub-set of a whole population) is often done for reasons of cost (it’s less expensive to sample 1,000 television viewers than 100 million TV viewers) and practicality (e. g. performing a crash test on every automobile produced is impractical). The sampled population and the target population should be similar to one another. Types of sampling strategies: Probability: Why is it used? To generalize to population. Some examples: Simple random sample Stratified sample Cluster sample Systematic sample Non probability: When should it be used? Where generalizability not as important. Researcher wants to focus on â€Å"right cases. † Quota sample â€Å"Purposeful† sample â€Å"Convenience† or â€Å"opportunity’ sample Sampling Plans A sampling plan is a method or procedure for specifying how a sample will be taken from a population. Three methods of sampling are: Simple Random Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Cluster Sampling. Random sampling is often the most common one used. Simple Random Sampling†¦ A simple random sample is a sample selected in such a way that every possible sample of the same size is equally likely to be chosen. Drawing three names from a hat containing all the names of the students in the class is an example of a simple random sample: any group of three names is as equally likely as picking any other group of three names. A stratified random sample is obtained by separating the population into mutually exclusive sets, or strata, and then drawing simple random samples from each stratum. Strata 1 : Gender : Male Female Strata 2 : Age ; 20 20-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 60 Strata 3 : Occupation professional clerical blue collar other We can enquire about the total population, make inferences within a stratum or make comparisons across strata Cluster Sampling A cluster sample is a simple random sample of groups or clusters of elements (vs. a simple random sample of individual objects). This method is useful when it is difficult or costly to develop a complete list of the population members or when the population elements are widely dispersed geographically. Cluster sampling may increase sampling error due to similarities among cluster members. Sampling and Non-Sampling Errors†¦ Two major types of error can arise when a sample of observations is taken from a population: sampling error and nonsampling error. Sampling error refers to differences between the sample and the population that exist only because of the observations that happened to be selected for the sample. Reduce when sample size larger. Nonsampling errors are more serious and are due oms kes made in the acquisition ot data or due to the sample observations being selected improperly. Most likely caused be poor planning, sloppy work, etc. Errors in data acquisition†¦ †¦ arises from the recording of incorrect responses, due to: † incorrect easurements being taken because of faulty equipment, † mistakes made during transcription from primary sources, † inaccurate recording of data due to misinterpretation of terms, or † inaccurate responses to questions concerning sensitive issues. Nonresponse Error†¦ †¦ refers to error (or bias) introduced when responses are not obtained from some members of the sample, i. e. he sample observations that are collected may not be representative of the target population. The Response Rate (i. e. the proportion of all people selected who complete the survey) is a key survey parameter and helps in the nderstanding in the validity of the survey and sources of nonresponse error. The importance of ensuring accurate and appropriate data collection Both the selection of appropriate data collection instruments (existing, modified, or newly developed) and clearly delineated instructions for their correct use reduce the likelihood of errors occurring. Issues related to maintaining integrity of data collection: Most, Craddick, Crawford, Redican, Rhodes, Rukenbrod, and Laws (2003) describe ‘quality assurance’ and ‘quality control’ as two approaches that can preserve data integrity and ensure the scientific validity of study results. Each approach is implemented at different points in the research timeline . Whitney, Lind, Wahl, (1998) Quality assurance – activities that take place before data collection begins Quality control – activities that take place during and after data collection Quality Assurance Since quality assurance precedes data collection, its main focus is ‘prevention’ (i. . , forestalling problems with data collection). Prevention is the most cost-effective activity to ensure the integrity of data collection. In the social/behavioral sciences where primary data collection involves human subjects, researchers are taught to ncorporate one or more secondary measures t hat can be used to verify the quality of information being collected from the human subject. For example, a researcher conducting a survey might be interested in gaining a better insight into the occurrence of risky behaviors among young adults as well as the social conditions that increase the likelihood and frequency of these risky behaviors. Two main points to note: 1) cross-checks within the data collection process and 2) data quality being as much an observation-level issue as it is a complete data set issue. Thus, data quality should be addressed for each individual measurement, for ach individual observation, and for the entire data set. Quality control While quality control activities (detection/monitoring and action) occur during and after data collection, the details should be carefully documented in the procedures manual. A clearly defined communication structure is a necessary pre-condition for establishing monitoring systems. There should not be any uncertainty about the flow of information between principal investigators and staff members following the detection of errors in data collection. A poorly developed communication structure encourages lax monitoring and limits opportunities for detecting errors. Quality control also identities the required responses, or ‘actions’ necessary to correct taulty data collection practices and also minimize future occurrences. These actions are less likely to occur if data collection procedures are vaguely written and the necessary steps to minimize recurrence are not implemented through feedback and education. How to cite Data collection methods, Papers

Financial Institutions Capital Market

Question: Discuss about theFinancial Institutionsfor Capital Market. Answer: Description of the Various Types of Financial Markets and their Role: In the words of Clark Monk (2013), the financial market describes any marketplace, in which the trading of securities like bonds, equities, currencies and derivatives takes place. The different types of financial markets and their associated roles are briefly demonstrated as follows: Capital Market: As commented by Da Gbadji, Gailly Schwienbacher (2015), the capital market is the place, in which the institutions and individuals are engaged in trading financial securities. The institutions and firms in both the public and private sectors sell securities in the capital market for generating funds. Hence, the capital market comprises of both primary and secondary markets (Gennaioli, Martin Rossi, 2014). The UAE government and corporations need capital to fund operations for involving in long-term investments. In order to raise capital, both the public and private sectors of UAE accumulate funds by selling stocks, securities and bonds in the names of the organisations, which are traded in the capital markets. Stock Market: As remarked by Hilscher, Landskroner Raviv (2016), the stock market enables an investor to purchase and sell shares in the public firms. The stock exchange is one of the most significant areas of the market, since it provides companies with an overview of the access to capital. In addition, the investors are provided with an insight of the portion of business ownership and the probability of gains based on the future performance of the firm. In UAE, the stock market is composed of both primary market and secondary market. In the primary market, the new issues are offered initially with any succeeding trading occurring in the secondary market. The trades are conducted in the central locations of UAE like ADSM and DFM (Al-Tamimi, Miniaoui Elkelish, 2014). Over-the-Counter Market: Ss indicated by Bhagat, Bolton Lu (2015), over-the-counter market is a decentralised market, in which the physical location is not central and the participants in the market trade with each other via e-mail, telephone and electronic trading systems. In such a market, the dealers play the role of market makers by quoting prices of purchasing and selling any currency or security. Therefore, this market is less transparent compared to exchanges, since it is subject to lesser regulations (Fuller, 2016). Debt and Equity Markets: The purchasers of debt instruments are the firm suppliers and the debt instruments have limited lives or dates of maturity. The main advantage associated with the instruments of debt market is the contractual agreement coupled with legal rights to make payments. However, the drawback of this market is that the profit or return is limited or fixed. In case of equity market, the owners of an organisation comprise of the common stock purchasers. In addition, the equity instrument, which is common stock, has infinite life or date of maturity. The main advantage of common stock is the higher rate of return, since the same is not limited or fixed However, the equity payments could not be made before the settlement of debts (Huat, 2014). Figure 1: Types of financial markets in UAE (Source: Knights Tinker, 2016) Explanation of the Role, Importance and Functioning of Financial Intermediaries: The financial intermediaries in UAE are engaged in the procedure of indirect finance and it is a better source in contrast to the security market. Along with this, the financial intermediaries are required for managing the cost of transactions and asymmetric information (Lovett Malloy, 2014).For instance, Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank minimises its transaction costs through the development of expertise and take advantage associated with the scope and economies of scale. Such low transaction cost would help the intermediary to provide liquidity services to its customers, which make it convenient for the customers in conducting their transactions. Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank (ADIB) gives its depositors checking accounts for easy bill payments (, 2016). Moreover, the depositors are entitled to receive interest on savings and checking accounts and they possess the ability to convert the same into products and services without liquidating and discontinuing investments. The low transaction cost of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank helps in minimising the investors exposure to risk via risk sharing. For instance, the financial intermediaries in UAE develop and sell assets with smaller risk to one party for purchasing assets with higher risk from other party like the banks. This is the method of asset transformation, in which the risky assets are converted into risk-free assets for the investors. According to the Board of Directors of the central bank of UAE with special reference to Resolution No. 126.5.95, it regulates the financial intermediaries in buying and selling of both domestic stocks and bonds. The intermediary needs to be an UAE citizen and the national shareholding need not be less than 60% of the overall paid-up capital for the firms. The amount of capital varies from 1-3 million Dirhams based on the activity scope, which the intermediary aims to conduct. Risks Associated with Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and Ways of Measuring Risks: The following are the risks associated with Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and the ways of measuring the same are briefly summed up as follows: Credit risk is the risk, in which the bank borrower would fail to meet the obligations according to the agreed terms. The main reason for such credit risk is the acceptances, loans, trade financing and interbank transactions. In order to measure this risk, Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank use to buy credit default swaps for transferring the risk to another party. The interest rate risk is the risk, which leads to potential losses due to the global interest rate fluctuations (Hull, 2012). For measuring the risk, ADIB uses the full valuation approach for revaluing the change in the global scenario associated with interest rate. Another risk confronting ADIB is the operational risk, which might lead to losses from the ineffective internal procedures or external events. AIDB uses computerised systems in its branches to avoid human errors. For minimising the programming errors, ADIB recruits expert IT professionals, which has resulted in improved bank functioning and operations. Business risk is the risk, in which the organisation would experience lower profit margin in contrast to the anticipated one (Sedunov, 2016). ADIB has concentrated more on retained earnings, which help in coping up with lower profit experience in the subsequent year. Role and Function of Financial Intermediaries of UAE with Special Reference to Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank: ADIB form a parcel and inter-jointed medium of the Islamic developmental framework. Such intermediation aims to improve the efficiency of the investment process through eradication of the mismatches in the availability of financial resources of the borrowers. The intermediaries of ADIB are liable to identify feasible projects for funding along with monitoring the progress. Along with this, it is the responsibility of the intermediaries to ensure effective accounting and auditing practices (Wang Hsu, 2013). However, ADIB has restricted the intermediaries in project handling and framing policy decisions. However, in cases of project failure, the financial intermediaries of ADIB are defaulted and the ripple effect has destabilised the entire system. ADIB is highly efficient in allocating funds based on the project productivity, instead of the creditworthiness of the project holders. Hence, ADIB plays a major role in contributing towards the economic development of UAE by funding in potential capital projects with the help of intermediaries. References: (2016). Retrieved 23 December 2016, from Al-Tamimi, H., Miniaoui, H., Elkelish, W. W. (2014). Financial Risk and Islamic Banks Performance in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Bhagat, S., Bolton, B., Lu, J. (2015). Size, leverage, and risk-taking of financial institutions.Journal of Banking Finance,59, 520-537. Clark, G. L., Monk, A. H. (2013). The scope of financial institutions: in-sourcing, outsourcing and off-shoring.Journal of Economic Geography,13(2), 279-298. Da Gbadji, L. A. G., Gailly, B., Schwienbacher, A. (2015). International analysis of venture capital programs of large corporations and financial institutions.Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice,39(5), 1213-1245. Fuller, G. W. (2016). Introduction. InThe Great Debt Transformation(pp. 1-24). Palgrave Macmillan US. Gennaioli, N., Martin, A., Rossi, S. (2014). Sovereign default, domestic banks, and financial institutions.The Journal of Finance,69(2), 819-866. Hilscher, J., Landskroner, Y., Raviv, A. (2016). Optimal regulation, executive compensation and risk taking by financial institutions.Executive Compensation and Risk Taking by Financial Institutions (March 18, 2016). Huat, T. C. (2014). Financial institutions and markets.Handbook of SingaporeMalaysian Corporate Finance, 12. Hull, J. (2012).Risk Management and Financial Institutions,+ Web Site(Vol. 733). John Wiley Sons. Knights, D., Tinker, T. (Eds.). (2016).Financial institutions and social transformations: International studies of a sector. Springer. Lovett, W., Malloy, M. (2014).Banking and Financial Institutions Law in a Nutshell, 8th. West Academic. Sedunov, J. (2016). What is the systemic risk exposure of financial institutions?.Journal of Financial Stability,24, 71-87. Wang, T., Hsu, C. (2013). Board composition and operational risk events of financial institutions.Journal of Banking Finance,37(6), 2042-2051.

Friday, May 1, 2020

To what extent was President Richard Nixon responsible in the Watergate scandal in the 1972

To what extent was President Richard Nixon responsible in the Watergate scandal in the 1972-1974? Essay The United States of America had its first President way back in 1789 and in the past 221 years only once did the President have to resign. This was the 37th president, Richard Nixon. He resigned from office due to his alleged involvement in the Watergate scandal. This paper will thus explore the question: â€Å"To What Extent Was Richard Nixon Responsible For the Watergate Scandal of 1974?† For this incident there are no specific schools of learning, therefore I will wield three different perspectives to this incident, people who were neutral (people out for a true story, namely Bob Woodward from the Washington post and also Carl Bernstein), people who were anti-Nixon (who might or might not have been supporters of Nixon but blamed him for the entire scandal) and what the President had to say about the entire era during his interviews with Sir David Frost. The main limitation to this paper is that each perspective has a bias; either a loyalty bias or a personal bias as most of the sources themselves were a part of the scandal (whether an investigator or a conspirator). This paper deals with a time line of 1972 to 1976, from the first burglary up until the time the President resigns in 1976, these were the years in which the entire scandal was unearthed. Even though Nixon’s involvement in the entire scandal is doubtful because there is no solid evidence of his involvement, I will try to find out in the course of my investigation whether this whole incident was blown out of proportion by the media. This paper will conclude that up till today even though nobody was able to convict Nixon for his involvement in the Watergate Scandal, he was however involved in a cover-up, an act to obstruct justice.